Samos is a separate regional unit of the North Aegean region, and the only municipality of the regional unit.
Since the ancient times Samos was a particularly rich and powerful city-state. It is home to Pythagoreion and the Heraion of Samos, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that includes the Eupalinian aqueduct, a marvel of ancient engineering. Samos is the birthplace of the Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras, after whom the Pythagorean theorem is named, the philosopher Epicurus, and the astronomer Aristarchus of Samos, the first known individual to propose that the Earth revolves around the sun. Samian wine was well known in antiquity, and is still produced on the island.
The island was governed by the semi-autonomous Principality of Samos under Ottoman suzerainty from 1835 until it joined Greece in 1912.
The area of the island is 478 km2 (184.6 sq. miles) 43 km (27 miles) long and 13 km (8 miles) wide. It is separated from Anatolia by the approximate distance of 1-mile-wide (1.6 km) Mycale Strait. While largely mountainous, Samos has several relatively large and fertile plains.
A great portion of the island is covered with vineyards, from which muscat wine is made. The most important plains except the capital, Vathi, in the northeast, are that of Karlovasi, in the northwest, Pythagoreio, in the southeast, and Marathokampos in the southwest. The island's population is 33,814, which is the 9th most populous of the Greek islands. The Samian climate is typically Mediterranean, with mild rainy winters, and warm rainless summers.
Samos' relief is dominated by two large mountains, Ampelos and Kerkis (anc. Kerketeus). The Ampelos massif (colloquially referred to as "Karvounis") is the larger of the two and occupies the center of the island, rising to 1,095 metres (3,593 ft). Mt. Kerkis, though smaller in area is the taller of the two and its summit is the island's highest point, at 1,434 metres (4,705 ft). The mountains are a continuation of the Mycale range on the Anatolian mainland.
“This place was the centre of a great culture”. That’s how the Greek poet, J. Ritsos, describes the island of Samos. Its history and its monuments indicate that this is actually the case. Trade had flourished here, while the tobacco and tanning industry had been well known for years.
The location of Samos contributed greatly to its development. It is situated at the Eastern Aegean sea, very close to the coast of Asia Minor, embraced by Ionia and approximately in the middle of the sea-route that links Greece with the East, the Black Sea with Egypt and with the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.
Great beasts, like the Megatherium, and other rare kinds of animals had lived in Samos during the prehistoric era. The palaeontological findings at the area of Mytilinii decorate the exhibition not only of the local museum, but of many others too, both in Greece and abroad.
Traces of human presence in the island date from the fourth millenium BC. The name “Samos” is probably of Phoenician origin and according to Stravo means altitude near the coast. In written text, the word “Samos” appears for the first time in a Homeric Hymn to Apollo. However, the island had other names, too: Anthemis, Doryssa, Dryoussa, Kyparissia, Imvrassia, Melamphyllos, Parthenia.
The Pelasghi are considered the island’s older inhabitants. They were followed by the clans of Carians and Lelegians. The first king of Samos was the legendary king Ancaeus, one of the heroes of the argonautic expedition, who built the first wooden temple of the goddess Hera, the island’s protector, near the mouth of the river Imvrasos, where, according to mythology, the goddess was born. In the 11th century approximately, inhabitants of Ionia settled here with Tembrion and Procles who, being their leaders, spread their domination over the island. They divided Samos into two parts, Astipalaia and Chesia and they built the city of Samos in the place where the contemporary Pythagorio is located.
During antiquity, Samos enjoys its greatest prosperity in the 6th century, under the leadership of the tyrant Polycrates. The ancient historian Herodotus calls the island the first among all cities, both Greek and barbaric. Its navigation and trade flourish. Samian ships travel in the East and the West, bringing wealth and knowledge to the island. With its warships, the so-called samainas, it dominates over the Aegean Sea for a long time. The economic prosperity was parallel to the cultural development. It was in that century that the greatest figures in the realms of culture and the Arts had distinguished themselves. Among the most well-known ones were the mathematician and philosopher Pythagoras, and the architects of Heraion, as well as pioneers of sculpture, Rhoecus and Theodorus. The island attracts artists such as Ibycus and Anacreon. It establishes colonies in Ephessus nearby and in Amorgos, in Samothrace and in Thrace, in distant Sicily, too. One is impressed by four ancient edifices, built during the same century; the Polycratean walls, the Tunnel of Eupalinus, the harbour mole and the temple of Hera, with her sanctuary, Heraion.
The four miles long Polycratean walls, protected the ancient city of Samos, encircling an area of 1,3 square yards. Even today the visitors are impressed by the very few parts of the walls that are still preserved.
The Tunnel of Eupalinus constitutes a major technical achievement in an age of minimal means and knowledge. It was constructed in the mid 6th century by the architect Eupalinus, from Megara, in order to supply water to the city. It is a construction of about one mile long, which is driven through the mountain and makes a great impression today for the excellent precision in the opening-up of the tunnel, considering that the simplest tools, such as hammer and chisel, had been used for clearing the ground from the rocks. That water-supplying system had been working until the 7th century AC; in the following years its entrances were covered up and it was not discovered until 1882, from the monk Cyrillus Monina. The first cleaning operations at the tunnel began in that period. The Tunnel of Eupalinus was finally cleaned out and studied by German archaeologists in 1971-1973.
The third important construction of the Polycrates’ reign was the harbour mole. The natural harbour in front of the city was divided, with the help of two breakwaters and other constructions, into two separate harbours: the outer harbour, which was used for the trade, and the inner harbour, which was used as a dockyard. The most significant work in the harbour was the “soil in the sea”, a mole, that is, about 393 yards long, where the modern constructions of the Pythagorio port were founded. When G. Konemenos became the prince of Samos (1851-1854), initiated the port’s expansion, while later on, the prince Miltiades Aristarches (1859-1865) called the civil engineer Uman to make the plans for the construction of a new port in Tegani (the former name of Pythagorio).
The temple of Hera, the largest among those that Herodotus had seen, was located 3 miles westward of the city. A paved road, 13 feet wide, with statues and other offerings at both sides, linked the city with the temple of the goddess. This was 356 feet long, 180 feet wide and 82 feet high. It was built by the architect Theodorus, son of Rhoecus, and had 133 columns. Today only one column is preserved, thus, the surrounding area is called not only Heraion, but Colona (column), too.
Other gods were also worshipped in ancient Samos and temples had been built to honour them, but the grandeur of Heraion outshone them all. Neptune was worshipped at the cape towards the Samos Strait, in contemporary Posidhonio, as well as Dionysus, Athena, Apollo and Venus. The greatest celebrations were dedicated to Hera, honouring the birth of the goddess and her marriage to Zeus. These festivities, the so-called Heraia, were celebrated with splendour and a grandiose procession started out from the city and, through the paved road, ended in the temple of Hera. Another important celebration was the Tonaia, during which a miracle that the goddess had made was being represented. According to the myth, people from Argos stole the goddess’s sacred statue in order to bring it to their homeland. But no matter how hard they rowed away, their ship, instead of sailing in the open sea, returned to the shore and they managed to sail off only when did they disembark the statue on the shores of Samos.
At the Samos Strait, in Mykali, the sea between Samos and Asia Minor, the last great conflict between the Greeks and the Persians took place, in 479 BC. The Greeks won over the Persians in naval and in infantry battle, putting an end to their efforts to expand towards the West and to dominate the Mediterranean. After the Persian wars Samos participated with other city-states in the Athenian alliance, which never managed to abandon, even when the alliance became a powerful hegemony. The efforts of the people of Samos to lead their own independent way was met with a powerful rejection on the part of the alliance, which, under the leadership of Pericles, in 439 BC, besieged and after three months conquered and destroyed the city of Samos. Since then, Samos was loyal to the Athenian alliance and followed, inevitably, its decline.
Samos During the Hellenistic and Roman Period
During the Hellenistic period it was under the influence of the Ptolemaic Empire for a long time and its port was used as a dockyard for the fleets from Egypt and Rhodes. In the following years, Samos, like the rest of the Greek world, is ruled by the Romans and becomes, after the final disintegration of the city-state and the Hellenistic states, a small island in the vast empire and a perfect resort for Roman officials. Samos is chosen as a holiday resort by Antony and Cleopatra, too. Private dwellings and splendid mansions decorate the city, proving that the island never lacked craftsmen or love for beauty.
The Roman conquer brought, apart from the “Roman peace”, new people, new ways of living, new gods and worship. Hot springs, temples of Cybele, altars, offerings and lots of other monuments that are preserved, indicate the Roman presence at the island.
Christianity and the structure of the Byzantine empire give Samos a different look. The Christian monuments cover up or alter the ancient temples. Yet, the city declines. The Persian and Arab raids force the population to retire inside the island and settle down at mountainous and, of course, fortified areas (Kastro Louloudhas, Kastro Lazarou, Kastraki, etc).
The Byzantine Period
During the Byzantine period Samos constitutes the 29th province of the islands. During the reign of the emperor Constantine Porphirogennitos, it became the metropolis of the Samos administrative area. After the fall of Constantinople from the crusaders in 1204, it was under the rule of the Latin seat of Constantinople and shared its fortune.
In 1247 it returned to the Byzantine state. In 1312, for a short period of time, it came under the rule of the Turk Aidin, while since 1367 and for about a century, it belonged to the Genoats, paying a tax to the Giustiniani knights of Chios. The Muslims never managed to settle permanently in Samos.
Ottoman Period: Evacuation and Resettlement (16th -19th)
In about 1475, due to pirates’ raids and the insecurity that followed, many people of Samos sought refuge in the neighbouring island of Chios and in Asia Minor. Many settlements near the sea were deserted and the island’s population was so scarce that the period is characterised as the evacuation of Samos. That situation went on for about a century.
In 1562 approximately, Kilitz Ali pasha, admiral of the Ottoman fleet, is said to have anchored with his fleet at the area of Heraion and, enchanted by the island’s beauty and history, asked the sultan Suleyman for permission to bring the population back to the island, securing also important privileges for them. The most significant privileges were that the new settlers were going to be exempted from the majority of the taxes, the compulsory unpaid labour and the customs, they would also be considered as Christians and they would be self-governed. These privileges were often validated from Suleyman’s successors and contributed to the resettlement of Samos from Christians of various areas, who found there a refuge, relevant freedom and land to cultivate. The descendants of the former dwellers of the island returned there, too. The contemporary villages of Samos originate from that new settlement. The names of some villages indicate the homeland of the new or the old settlers: Mytilinii, Vourliotes, Leka, Kondeika, Skoureika, etc.
Until the 1821 revolution, the administrator of Samos was originally a Christian church-warden and later an Ottoman who was appointed by the sultan. The latter had four high-ranking elders as counselors, elected by the low-ranking elders of the villages. For three years, from 1771 until 1774, the island was temporarily under Russian occupation. In the late 18th century, many new settlers from Peloponnese, Cythera and the Ionian islands came here and brought some new ideologies with them. The developments in trade and shipping, travelling and new schools, such as the Hellenic School of Karlovasi (1784), the ideas of the modern Greek Enlightenment and the French Revolution, led to the gradual formation of social sectors, reflected in two political parties, the Karmanioli and the Kallikantzari.
The former were progressive, whereas the latter were conservative. It was Karmanioli, who had embraced and projected the most revolutionary ideas of their time, that created the leading party of the 1821 revolution in Samos, with Logothetes Lycurgus as a leader.
The Greek Revolution (1821 – 1834)
In Samos the revolution began on 18 April, 1821 and in Karlovassi on 8 May, 1821, with a formal ceremony. In the same month, Lycurgus Logothetes designed and put a local system of government into practice, called the Military and Political Organization of the Island of Samos, in order to impose law and order on the island. According to that local constitution, two systems of administration were established; the military one and the political one.
Samos as an Autonomous Principality (1834 – 1912)
The political action of the great forces, France, England and Russia, in thearea of the Ottoman Empire, resulted in the principality of Samos. Samos became an autonomous small state, subject to the sultan. The prince was Christian, a higher official of the Sublime Porte, and was appointed by the sultan. He governed the island in cooperation with a four-membered local government, which was called the Parliament and was elected by the General Assembly of the proxies of every town or village. The principality lasted until 1912, when, after a revolution, Samos declared its union with Greece. The 1912 revolution was not the only one against authority. There had been other revolts and protests before, due to various causes and on various pretexts, related mainly to the violation of privileges or to the oppressive exertion of authority.
The first period of the principality government, until 1849, was the cruelest one for Samos. The real leaders and the most dynamic part of the population had migrated and been ruled out of the social life of their homeland. The administration of Stephanos Vogorides, the first prince, focused basically on tax-gathering, from people that were already experiencing an economic crisis. Such mistakes resulted in the revolt of 1849, which defined better the privileges and the terms of the autonomy.
In 1851, when George Konemenos arrived at the island as the principality’s deputy, the autonomous status was established. The small state’s services and the courts of law were organised, schools were built in all villages, as well as a printing-office, basic laws were voted and the piracy was wiped out. In 1855, John Ghikas being the prince, the Pythagorion Secondary School started working as a higher educational establishment, and soon after as a higher girls’ school.Great teachers from all over Greece were called and scholarships were given to those able to study. Many young graduates continued their studies in Greece, Constantinople or abroad. Finishing their studies, they returned to Samos and by participating in the social and political affairs, they forged the new cultural and political forces of the place. Their influence on the Samian society was soon made evident.
Samos developed more and more in the last quarter of the 19th century, following the trends of the time. Public works, such as roads and harbours are built, public and private buildings embellish the city, education is reorganised, industry, especially tanning and tobacco industry, agriculture, trade and shipping flourish as well. After the destruction of the vineyards from a plant disease, tobacco cultivation developed and viniculture revived with the introduction of American vines. During the last period of the principality government, doctors, Greek literature teachers, lawyers, agronomists, architects, civil engineers and other scientists and scholars contribute to the cultural development of the place. Apart from the formal newspaper SAMOS, many others were printed, too (EVNOMIA, PATRIS, PHOS, PROODOS, AEGEON etc).
The Union of Samos with Greece (1912 – 1914)
Τhemistocles Sofoules is one of the most eminent personalities of Samos, during the last twelve-year period of the principality. He studied archaeology, did the first scientific excavations at Heraion and became a political leader and architect of the Samian revolution in 1912 and of the union of Samos with Greece. In September 1912, Samos revolted under his leadership and on 11 November 1912 the island’s national assembly declared its union with “the free Greek kingdom”.
The union was formally established in March, 1913. For two years, until 1914, the Temporary Government of Samos ruled the island, having Themistocles Sofoules as president. From that moment on, Samos became an integral part of the Greek state.
After the Union (1914 – 1940)
The union with Greece changed the political and administrative system. Samos had become a free Greek province. Naturally, the people’s lives changed. The frequent communication with Asia Minor, where Greek populations lived under the Ottoman rule, was reduced and finally stopped in 1922. During the first World War, Greece participated in the Entente alliance. From such position, it managed to free the area of Smyrna, but the Greek army lost by the Turks who forced nearly all the Greek people of Asia Minor to leave, realising a nationalistic politics that dated from 1914. Approximately 1,500,000 Greeks came to Greece as refugees, abandoning their ancestral lands where Greek populations lived for 3,000 years. The largest wave of refugees was that of 1922, after the destruction of Smyrna, causing a sudden increase to the island’s population. Many refugees settled permanently down at the island, in villages and towns. Later, they built their own neighbourhoods, called “Prosfyghika” (“The Refugees’ neighbourhood”). Others used Samos as an intermediary link to other places in Greece. The refugees that inhabited the island gave a different aspect to its life, despite the difficulties they faced. They brought knowledge, methods of land cultivation and a whole new culture with them. They also provided a cheap work-force for the tobacco industries. In the period between the wars, Samos tobacco and tanning industry flourished. In 1934 the Union of Vinicultural Cooperatives of Samos was established and within a short time it displaced the old wine merchants. However, the tanning and tobacco industry declined soon after the second World War.
World War II: Foreign Occupation, The resistance, Civil War (1941 – 1949)
During the second World War, Samos was occupied by Mussolini’s Italy. In May 1941, the CUNEO division arrived and occupied the island, meeting no resistance at all. A horrid winter followed, a winter of hunger and abject poverty that spread all over Greece. The population hadn’t got enough time to prepare itself with alternative types of cultivation, the trade declined and the conquerors took advantage of the largest part of the production.
However, soon enough the people of Samos developed a powerful resistance movement against the fascist occupation. There were many casualties and sufferings, while many of them took refuge in the Middle East, fighting against Romel’s Germans on the allies’ side. The biggest resistance movements of Samos were the “National Liberating Front” (EAM) and the “National Liberating Army” (EAS). In September 1943, Samos was the first part of Greece that got liberated. After the capitulation, the guerilla forces, the metropolitan bishop of
Samos, Erenaios, and the Italian forces agreed on a system of administration. The bishop Erenaios became president of the Temporary Government. But the liberation didn’t last long. On 17 November, 1943, the German air force bombarded the capital city and other towns of the island, which suffered a heavy blow. The majority of the guerilla and Italian forces left for the Middle East through Turkey and the island fell under the German occupation for one year. The liberation finally came in 1944 and a destructive civil war followed in 1947-1949. Samos was one of the few islands that developed a powerful guerilla force of the Democratic Army. The aftermath of the civil war, which lasted from 1947 till July 1949, was particularly painful.
After the War (1950’s)
The sufferings of the war forced many people to seek a better future in the big cities and abroad, especially in Australia and in the United States, where a great number of Greek communities already existed. In fact, after the civil war, emigration was the major feature of the Samian society. The refugees were also attracted to other countries; countries from Africa, South America,Canada, New Zealand, as well as European countries like Belgium and Germany. After the 1950s the reconstruction of Samos began, while its tourism development really commenced after the 1970s. Tourism is now one of the most important activities of the areas near the sea and has influenced many aspects of the people’s lives.
Nowadays, Samos possesses a rich network of tourist facilities and services that favour a different kind of economic development. Apart from its natural beauty, the beautiful beaches and the rich vegetation, other attractions for the visitor include the archaeological areas of Heraion and Tunnel of Eupalinus, the archaeological and the Byzantine museum, the Public Library and the Historical Archives, as well as the palaeontological museum with its impressive exhibition at the village of Mytilinii. One can also visit the monasteries with the magnificent frescos, such as Megali Panaghia, Panaghia Vrontiani, Ayia Zoni, Zoodochos Pighi. Moreover, particularly interesting are the industrial buildings, the tanneries at Karlovasi, the tobacco warehouses at the city of Samos, the wine warehouses in Ayios Konstantinos and many other places that reflect the culture and the daily routine of older Samos. After all, every village, with the church, the school, the structure of the houses round the square, the gardens, the vineyards and the small olive groves, as well as the small country churches that spread along the most beautiful areas, all these make up a charming landscape that attracts every visitor.
According to many narrations the first inhabitants of the island were called Niiades or Miniades, which were mythical monsters causing earthquakes and geological upheaval. Actually you can see plenty of findings of prehistoric animal bones in the Paleontological Museum of Samos. Samos is believed to be the birthplace of the goddess Ira. It is said that Ira was born on the shores of river Imvrassos or Iraios, on the south part of the island. The ancient temple built by the Samians dedicated to her in the area of Iraion is preserved until today. At first, during the 13th century, the temple was made of wood and included a wooden worship statue of the goddess, which was said to have fallen from the sky. The inhabitants of the island tied the statue with a reed wicker - the sacred bush of the goddess – and took it into the temple. A characteristic element of the temple is the one and only column, which is maintained until today among the temple’s ruins, giving its name to the whole area that is called “Kolona” (“column” in Greek). A local traditional song refers to the area with the following lyrics: “If only I had some water from Platanos, some wine from Kolona…”. So, goddess Ira was the main goddess-protector of the island. Another myth connects the island to Dionysus, the god of wine and viniculture. It is said that Dionysus, originally coming from Asia Minor, had participated in a fight with the Amazons who were hunted and found shelter in Samos. Dionysus asked the Samians for their help, in order to extinguish them. They helped him and he taught them how to grow vines and produce wine. According to the legend, he finally gave them the vine that produces the famous muscat grape, which produces the sweet Samian wine. This wine is nowadays famous worldwide for its taste and aroma.
- Kokkari beach
The beach of Kokkari is a 500 meters long pebbly beach situated at a distance of 9,5 kilometers northwestern to the capital town of Samos. The sea is pretty deep and very clean, unprotected from the northern winds which raise high waves when blowing.
- Lemonakia Beach
Lemonakia (the word means “small lemons” in Greek) is a rather small beach, 400 meters long, with pebbles; the sea is not very deep and very clean but, as it happens with many of the beaches at the northern coast, it is not protected from the northern winds that raise high waves when blowing.
- Tsamadou Beach
The 400-meters-long pebbly beach of Tsamadou is situated some 12,5 kilometers far from the town of Samos at the Northwest; the sea is very clean and not very deep, but it is not protected from the northern winds that raise high waves when blowing.
- Avlakia Beach
The small beach of Avlakia is situated at a distance of some 15 kilometers northwestern to the town of Samos. It is a beach with deep and very clean sea, open to the north and affected by the northern winds that raise high waves when blowing
- Tsabou Beach
Tsabou is a small beach only some 350 meters long, with big pebbles, deep and very clean sea, open to the northern winds which raise high waves when blowing. The beach is situated at a distance of some 15 kilometers northwestern to the capital town of Samos and 3 kilometers before arriving to Aghios Constantinos.
- Kampos Beach
The tiny beach of Kambos (meaning “plain” in Greek), a beach with coarse pebbles, is situated at a distance of some 16 kilometers northwestern to the town of Samos; the beach has deep and very clean sea and it is open to the north and affected by the northern winds that raise high waves when blowing.
- Svala Beach (Tsarly area)
The beach of Svala is a long (up to 1,5 kilometers) pebbly beach, with big pebbles, situated at the northern coast of the island, some 19 kilometers northwestern to the town of Samos, a bit off the northern circular road connecting the town of Samos with Karlovasi and Agios Konstantinos.
- Agios Nikolaos Beach
The tiny beach of Agios Nikolaos, extended in front of homonymous tourist settlement, is situated at the northern coast of the island, some 27 kilometers northwestern to the town of Samos. The beach is open to the North and affected by the northern winds.
- Potami Beach
Potami (meaning “river” in Greek) is an 800 meters long pebbly beach with rather deep and clean sea, not protected at all from the northern winds which raise high waves when blowing.
- Mikro Seitani Beach
Mikro (“small”) Seitani is a tiny pebbly beach, only some 150 meters long, with deep very clean sea; the beach is open to the North and the northern winds raise high waves when blowing. It is situated at the northern coast of the island, some 36 kilometers northwestern to the town of Samos and 4 kilometers after Karlovasi.
- Megalo Seitani Beach
The beach of Megalo (“big”) Seitani is a small beach, only 350 meters long, with coarse sand, situated at a distance of 38 kilometers far from the capital town of Samos, at the Northwest. The sea is pretty deep and very clean, not protected at all from the northern winds, which raise high waves when blowing.
- Gagou Beach
The small (only some 200 meters long) pebbly beach of Gagou is situated at the northeastern coast of the island, at a distance of less than 2 kilometers northern to the capital town of Samos.
- Kerveli Beach
The small (only some 200 meters long) pebbly beach of Kerveli is situated at the eastern coast of the island, at a distance of some 8 kilometers southeastern to the capital town of Samos. It is a beach with shallow and very clean sea and, as it is located within the homonymous bay, it is pretty well protected from the winds.
- Posidonio Beach
The small (only some 200 meters long) pebbly beach of Poseidonio is situated at the southeastern coast of the island, at a distance of some 10 kilometers southeastern to the capital town of Samos. It is a beach with rather shallow, very clean sea and, as it is located within a small cove, it is very well protected from the winds.
- Klima Beach
The small beach of Klima is situated at the southeastern coast of the island, some 14 kilometers southern to the capital town of Samos. The sea is pretty shallow and very clean and the beach is well protected from the winds
- Mykali Beach
The beach of Mykali is a 3-kilometers-long beach, with big pebbles is situated at a distance of some 7 kilometers southern to the capital town of Samos. Found at the southeastern coast of the island, the beach is well protected from the winds; the sea is very clean but not very shallow.
- Psili Ammos Beach
The small, some 200 meters long, sandy beach of Psili Ammos (meaning “fine sand” in Greek) is situated at the southeastern coast of the island, at a distance of some 9 kilometers southern to the capital town of Samos. It is a beach that is worth its name, with nice fine sand, pretty shallow, very clean sea and well protected from the winds.
- Pythagorion Beach
The tiny (only 100 meters long) pebbly beach of Pythagorio is situated at the southwestern coast of the island, in front of the town of Pythagorio and beside its port; it is found at a distance of some 11 kilometers southwestern to the capital of the island.
- Potokaki-Doryssa Beach
The 3000 long beach of Potokaki and Doryssa is situated in front of the homonymous well known tourist resort, at a distance of some 14 kilometers southwestern to the town of Samos and 3-4 kilometers western to Pythagorio.
- Ireon Beach
The rather small, only 400 meters long, beach of Heraeon, pebbly and partly sandy, is situated at a distance of 17 kilometers southwestern to the town of Samos and 6 kilometers western to Pythagorio.
- Tsopela Beach
The tiny, only 100 meters long, pebbly beach of Tsopela is situated at a distance of some 29 kilometers southwestern to the town of Samos and 18 kilometers western to Pythagorio ; the sea is very clean and not very deep and the beach, found at the southern coast of the island, is well protected from the northern winds.
- Sykia Beach
The tiny, only 100 meters long, pebbly and secluded beach of Sykia (meaning “fig tree” in Greek) is situated at a distance of some 30 kilometers southwestern to the town of Samos and 19 kilometers western to Pythagorio; the sea is very clean and not very deep and the beach, found at the southern coast of the island, is rather well protected from the northern winds.
- Pefkos Beach
Pefkos (the word means “pine tree” in Greek) is a 200 meters long beach with big pebbles, situated at a distance of some 37 kilometers southwestern to the town of Samos. The beach is found at the southwestern coast of the island, within the bay of Marathokambos, close to the well known beach of Psili Ammos.
- Balos Beach
Ballos is a 400 meters long beach with big pebbles, situated at a distance of some 40 kilometers southwestern to the town of Samos. The beach is found at the southwestern coast of the island, within the bay of Marathokambos, close to the well known beach of Psili Ammos.
- Marathokampos’ Bay Beach
The tiny beach just beside the small port of the tourist settlement Ormos Marathokambou is situated at a distance of some 45 kilometers southwestern to the town of Samos. The sea is of medium depth and very clean and, as it is found at the southwestern coast of the island, within the bay of Marathokambos, it is well protected from the winds.
- Kampos Marathokampou or Votsalakia Beach
Situated some 46 kilometers far from the town of Samos at the Southwest, very close to the tourist resort of Ormos Marathokambou, Kambos Marathokambou (the word means “the fields of fennel” in Greek) is an extended, some 3 kilometers long beach, with sand and pebbles, also known as Votsalakia (“small pebbles” in Greek).
- Aspres Beach
Aspres (the word means “white” in Greek) is a 350 meters long beach with pebbles, situated at a distance of some 47 kilometers southwestern to the town of Samos. The beach is found at the southwestern coast of the island, within the bay of Marathokambos, close to the tourist resort of Ormos Marathokambou.
- Psili Ammos or Chrissi Ammos Beach
The small (400 meters long) beach of Psili Ammos (the word in Greek means “fine sand) is a sandy beach with fine sand from which it has taken its name; it is also referred to as Chryssi Ammos (“golden sand”), because of the color of the sand. The beach is situated some 51 kilometers southwestern to the capital town of Samos.
- Limnionas Beach
Limionas is a small beach, only 400 meters long, with nice coarse sand, very clean and deep sea; as it is found within the bay of Marathokambos at the southwestern coast of the island, it is also well protected from the winds. The beach is situated at a distance of some 53 kilometers far from the capital, to the Southwest.
- Agios Ioannis Eleimonas Beach
Agios Ioannis Eleimonas (St. John the Charitable) is a tiny, only 250 meters long, pebbly beach with nice pebbles and very clean sea of medium depth, situated at a distance of some 60 kilometers southwestern to the town of Samos.
- Plaka Beach
Plaka is a tiny, only 250 meters long, pebbly beach with very clean sea of medium depth, situated at a distance of some 63 kilometers southwestern to the town of Samos. Found at the western coast of the island, the beach is open to the west and it is not much protected from the winds.
- Varsamo Beach
Varsamo is a tiny, only 250 meters long beach is situated at a distance of some 68 kilometers western to the town of Samos. It is a pebbly beach with nice pebbles and very clean sea of medium depth. Found at the western coast of the island, it faces the open see and it is not protected at all from the winds which raise high waves when blowing.
Karlovasi P.D: 22730 22100
Firefighting Station: 22730 33333
Port Authority of Samos: 22730 27318
Coastguard of Karlovasi: 22730 30888
Forest Protection Services of Samos: 22730 27435
Forest protection Service, Karlovasi: 22730 32353
Samos’ Hospital: 22730 83100
First Aid: 22730 83100
First Aid, Karlovasi: 22730 32222
Samos’ Police Station, Chief: 22730 27333
Pithagorio Police Station: 22730 61100